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There are many versions of Ramayana in Indian languages, besides Buddhist, Sikh, and Jain adaptations. According to Indian tradition, the Ramayana itself, the epic belongs to the genre of Itihasa like Mahabharata.

According to Hindu tradition, Ramayana takes place during a period of time known as Treta Yuga. In its extant form, Valmiki's Ramayana is an epic poem of some 24, verses.

A Times of India report dated 18 December informs about the discovery of a 6th-century manuscript of the Ramayana at the Asiatic Society library, Kolkata.

Textual scholar Robert P. Goldman differentiates two major regional revisions: the northern n and the southern s.

Scholar Romesh Chunder Dutt writes that "the Ramayana , like the Mahabharata , is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind.

There has been discussion as to whether the first and the last volumes Bala Kand and Uttara Kand of Valmiki's Ramayana were composed by the original author.

Most Hindus still believe they are integral parts of the book, in spite of some style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the book.

Retellings include Kamban 's Ramavataram in Tamil c. In terms of narrative time, the action of the Ramayana predates the Mahabharata.

However, the general cultural background of the Ramayana is one of the post- urbanization periods of the eastern part of north India , while the Mahabharata reflects the Kuru areas west of this, from the Rigvedic to the late Vedic period.

By tradition, the text belongs to the Treta Yuga , second of the four eons Yuga of Hindu chronology. Rama is said to have been born in the Treta Yuga years ago to King Dasharatha in the Ikshvaku dynasty.

According to the modern academic view, Vishnu , who, according to Bala Kanda , was incarnated as Rama , first came into prominence with the epics themselves and further, during the Puranic period of the later 1st millennium CE.

Also, in the epic Mahabharata, there is a version of the Ramayana known as Ramopakhyana. This version is depicted as a narration to Yudhishthira.

Books two to six form the oldest portion of the epic, while the first and last books Bala Kand and Uttara Kand, respectively are later additions: style differences and narrative contradictions between these two volumes and the rest of the epic have led scholars since Hermann Jacobi to the present toward this consensus.

This Sarga section details the stories of Rama's childhood and events related the time-frame. Dasharatha was the King of Ayodhya.

He had three wives: Kaushalya, Kaikeyi and Sumitra. He was childless for a long time and anxious to have an heir, so he performs a fire sacrifice known as Putra-kameshti Yajna.

These sons are endowed, to various degrees, with the essence of the Supreme Trinity Entity Vishnu ; Vishnu had opted to be born into mortality to combat the demon Ravana , who was oppressing the gods, and who could only be destroyed by a mortal.

The boys were reared as the princes of the realm, receiving instructions from the scriptures and in warfare from Vashistha.

When Rama was 16 years old, sage Vishwamitra comes to the court of Dasharatha in search of help against demons who were disturbing sacrificial rites.

He chooses Rama, who is followed by Lakshmana, his constant companion throughout the story. Rama and Lakshmana receive instructions and supernatural weapons from Vishwamitra and proceed to destroy Tataka and many other demons.

Janaka was the King of Mithila. One day, a female child was found in the field by the King in the deep furrow dug by his plough.

Overwhelmed with joy, the King regarded the child as a "miraculous gift of God". The child was named Sita, the Sanskrit word for furrow.

Sita grew up to be a girl of unparalleled beauty and charm. The King had decided that who ever could lift and wield the heavy bow, presented to his ancestors by Shiva , could marry Sita.

Sage Vishwamitra takes Rama and Lakshmana to Mithila to show the bow. Then Rama desires to lift it and goes on to wield the bow and when he draws the string, it broke.

The weddings were celebrated with great festivity in Mithila and the marriage party returns to Ayodhya. After Rama and Sita have been married for twelve years, an elderly Dasharatha expresses his desire to crown Rama, to which the Kosala assembly and his subjects express their support.

On the eve of the great event, Kaikeyi — her jealousy aroused by Manthara , a wicked maidservant — claims two boons that Dasharatha had long ago granted her.

Kaikeyi demands Rama to be exiled into the wilderness for fourteen years, while the succession passes to her son Bharata.

The heartbroken king, constrained by his rigid devotion to his given word, accedes to Kaikeyi's demands.

Rama accepts his father's reluctant decree with absolute submission and calm self-control which characterizes him throughout the story.

He is joined by Sita and Lakshmana. When he asks Sita not to follow him, she says, "the forest where you dwell is Ayodhya for me and Ayodhya without you is a veritable hell for me.

Meanwhile, Bharata who was on a visit to his maternal uncle, learns about the events in Ayodhya. Bharata refuses to profit from his mother's wicked scheming and visits Rama in the forest.

He requests Rama to return and rule. But Rama, determined to carry out his father's orders to the letter, refuses to return before the period of exile.

After thirteen years of exile, Rama, Sita and Lakshmana journey southward along the banks of river Godavari , where they build cottages and live off the land.

At the Panchavati forest they are visited by a rakshasi named Shurpanakha , sister of Ravana. She tries to seduce the brothers and, after failing, attempts to kill Sita.

Lakshmana stops her by cutting off her nose and ears. Hearing of this, her brothers Khara and Dushan organise an attack against the princes.

Rama defeats Khara and his raskshasas. When the news of these events reach Ravana, he resolves to destroy Rama by capturing Sita with the aid of the rakshasa Maricha.

Maricha, assuming the form of a golden deer, captivates Sita's attention. Entranced by the beauty of the deer, Sita pleads with Rama to capture it.

Rama, aware that this is the ploy of the demons, cannot dissuade Sita from her desire and chases the deer into the forest, leaving Sita under Lakshmana's guard.

After some time, Sita hears Rama calling out to her; afraid for his life, she insists that Lakshmana rush to his aid. Lakshmana tries to assure her that Rama cannot be hurt that easily and that it is best if he continues to follow Ram's orders to protect her.

On the verge of hysterics, Sita insists that it is not she but Rama who needs Lakshman's help. He obeys her wish but stipulates that she is not to leave the cottage or entertain any stranger.

He draws a chalk outline, the Lakshmana rekha , around the cottage and casts a spell on it that prevents anyone from entering the boundary but allows people to exit.

With the coast finally clear, Ravana appears in the guise of an ascetic requesting Sita's hospitality. Unaware of her guest's plan, Sita is tricked into leaving the rekha and is then forcibly carried away by Ravana.

Jatayu , a vulture , tries to rescue Sita, but is mortally wounded. At Lanka, Sita is kept under the guard of rakshasis. Ravana asks Sita to marry him, but she refuses, being eternally devoted to Rama.

Meanwhile, Rama and Lakshmana learn about Sita's abduction from Jatayu and immediately set out to save her. During their search, they meet Kabandha and the ascetic Shabari , who direct them towards Sugriva and Hanuman.

Kishkindha Kanda is set in the ape Vanara citadel Kishkindha. Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman, the biggest devotee of Rama, greatest of ape heroes and an adherent of Sugriva , the banished pretender to the throne of Kishkindha.

Rama befriends Sugriva and helps him by killing his elder brother Vali thus regaining the kingdom of Kishkindha, in exchange for helping Rama to recover Sita.

However Sugriva soon forgets his promise and spends his time in enjoying his powers. The clever former ape queen Tara wife of Vali calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana from destroying the ape citadel.

She then eloquently convinces Sugriva to honour his pledge. Sugriva then sends search parties to the four corners of the earth, only to return without success from north, east and west.

The southern search party under the leadership of Angada and Hanuman learns from a vulture named Sampati elder brother of Jatayu , that Sita was taken to Lanka.

Sundara Kand forms the heart of Valmiki's Ramyana and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman 's adventures. After learning about Sita, Hanuman assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the sea to Lanka.

On the way he meets with many challenges like facing a Gandharva kanya who comes in the form of a demon to test his abilities.

He encounters a mountain named Mainakudu who offers Hanuman assistance and offers him rest. Hanuman refuses because there is little time remaining to complete the search for Sita.

After entering into Lanka, he finds a demon, Lankini, who protects all of Lanka. Hanuman fights with her and subjugates her in order to get into Lanka.

Here, Hanuman explores the demons' kingdom and spies on Ravana. He locates Sita in Ashoka grove, where she is being wooed and threatened by Ravana and his rakshasis to marry Ravana.

Hanuman reassures Sita, giving Ram's signet ring as a sign of good faith. He offers to carry Sita back to Ram; however, she refuses and says that it is not the dharma, stating that Ramyana will not have significance if Hanuman carries her to Rama — "When Rama is not there Ravana carried Sita forcibly and when Ravana was not there, Hanuman carried Sita back to Ram".

She says that Rama himself must come and avenge the insult of her abduction. Hanuman then wreaks havoc in Lanka by destroying trees and buildings and killing Ravana's warriors.

He allows himself to be captured and delivered to Ravana. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana to release Sita. He is condemned and his tail is set on fire, but he escapes his bonds and leaping from roof to roof, sets fire to Ravana's citadel and makes the giant leap back from the island.

The joyous search party returns to Kishkindha with the news. Also known as Lanka Kanda , this book describes the war between the army of Rama and the army of Ravana.

Having received Hanuman's report on Sita, Rama and Lakshmana proceed with their allies towards the shore of the southern sea.

There they are joined by Ravana's renegade brother Vibhishana. The apes named Nala and Nila construct a floating bridge known as Rama Setu [22] across the sea, using stones that floated on water because they had Ram's name written on them.

The princes and their army cross over to Lanka. A lengthy war ensues. During a battle, Ravana's son Indrajit hurls a powerful weapon at Lakshmana, who is badly wounded.

So Hanuman assumes a gigantic form and flies from Lanka to the Himalayas. Upon reaching Mount Sumeru, Hanuman was unable to identify the herb that could cure Lakshmana and so decided to bring the entire mountain back to Lanka.

Eventually, the war ends when Rama kills Ravana. Rama then installs Vibhishana on the throne of Lanka. On meeting Sita, Rama asks her to undergo an Agni Pariksha test of fire to prove her chastity, as he wants to get rid of the rumors surrounding her purity.

When Sita plunges into the sacrificial fire, Agni , lord of fire raises Sita, unharmed, to the throne, attesting to her innocence. In Tulsidas 's Ramacharitamanas , Sita was under the protection of Agni see Maya Sita so it was necessary to bring her out before reuniting with Rama.

Uttara Kanda is the last book of Ramayana. It is a book of made up of conversations between Kakbhusundi and Garud.

This book was added by Tulsidas after hearing it from Kakbhusundi and Garud. At the expiration of his term of exile, Rama returns to Ayodhya with Sita, Lakshmana and Hanuman, where the coronation is performed.

On being asked to prove his devotion to Rama, Hanuman tears his chest open and to everyone's surprise, there is an image of Rama and Sita inside his chest.

Rama rules Ayodhya and the reign is called Ram-Rajya a place where the common folk are happy, fulfilled and satisfied.

This is a book kanda which was not written neither in the original Valmiki Ramayan nor by Tulsidas' Ramcharitmanas. In this chapter, as time passes in reign of Rama, spies start getting rumours that people are questioning Sita's purity as she stayed in the home of another man for a year without her husband.

The common folk start gossiping about Sita and question Ram's decision to make her Queen. Rama is extremely distraught on hearing the news, but finally tells Lakshmana that the purity of the Queen of Ayodhya has to be above any gossip and rumour.

He instructs him to take Sita to a forest outside Ayodhya and leave her there. Further, to tell her not to identify herself as the Queen of Ayodhya as that would be an insult to our forefathers.

Lakshmana reluctantly drops Sita in a forest for another exile. Sita finds refuge in Sage Valmiki 's ashram, where she gives birth to twin boys, Luv and Kush.

Meanwhile, Rama conducts an Ashwamedha yajna A holy declaration of the authority of the king. Luv and Kusha capture the horse sign of the yajna and defeat the whole army of Ayodhya which come to protect the horse.

Later on, both the brothers defeat Lakshmana , Bharat, Shatrughan and other warriors and take Hanuman as prisoner.

Finally Rama himself arrives and defeats the two mighty brothers. Valmiki updates Sita about this development and advises both the brothers to go to Ayodhya and tell the story of Sita's sacrifice to the common folks.

Both brothers arrive at Ayodhya but face many difficulties while convincing the people. Hanuman helps both the brothers in this task.

At one point of time, Valmiki brings Sita forward. Seeing Sita, Rama realises that Luv and Kush are his own sons. Again complicit Nagarsen One of the primaries who instigated the hatred towards Sita challenges Sita's character and asks her to prove her purity.

Sita is overflown with emotions and decides to go back to Mother Earth from where she emerged. She prays to her mother Bhoomidevi Goddess of Earth , the ground breaks into half and closes after Sita vanishes into it.

Rama rules Ayodhya for many years and finally takes Samadhi into Sarayu river along with his 3 brothers and leaves the world. He goes back to Vaikuntha in his Vishnu form.

As in many oral epics, multiple versions of the Ramayana survive. In particular, the Ramayana related in north India differs in important respects from that preserved in south India and the rest of southeast Asia.

There are diverse regional versions of the Ramayana written by various authors in India. Some of them differ significantly from each other. During the 12th century, Kamban wrote Ramavataram , known popularly as Kambaramayanam in Tamil , but references to Ramayana story appear in Tamil literature as early as 3rd century CE.

The earliest translation to a regional Indo-Aryan language is the early 14th century Saptakanda Ramayana in Assamese by Madhava Kandali. Valmiki's Ramayana inspired Sri Ramacharit Manas by Tulsidas in , an epic Awadhi a dialect of Hindi version with a slant more grounded in a different realm of Hindu literature, that of bhakti ; it is an acknowledged masterpiece of India, popularly known as Tulsi-krita Ramayana.

Gujarati poet Premanand wrote a version of the Ramayana in the 17th century. There is a sub-plot to the Ramayana , prevalent in some parts of India, relating the adventures of Ahiravan and Mahi Ravana, evil brother of Ravana, which enhances the role of Hanuman in the story.

Hanuman rescues Rama and Lakshmana after they are kidnapped by the Ahi-Mahi Ravana at the behest of Ravana and held prisoner in a cave, to be sacrificed to the goddess Kali.

Adbhuta Ramayana is a version that is obscure but also attributed to Valmiki — intended as a supplementary to the original Valmiki Ramayana.

In this variant of the narrative, Sita is accorded far more prominence, such as elaboration of the events surrounding her birth — in this case to Ravana 's wife, Mandodari as well as her conquest of Ravana's older brother in the Mahakali form.

Even before Kambar wrote the Ramavataram in Tamil in the 12th century AD, there are many ancient references to the story of Ramayana, implying that the story was familiar in the Tamil lands even before the Common Era.

Sita was the wife of Rama. To protect his children from his wife Kaikeyi, who wished to promote her son Bharata, Dasharatha sent the three to a hermitage in the Himalayas for a twelve-year exile.

There is no Ravan in this version i. But, Ravana appears in other Buddhist literature, the Lankavatara Sutra. Jain versions of the Ramayana can be found in the various Jain agamas like Ravisena's Padmapurana story of Padmaja and Rama , Padmaja being the name of Sita , Hemacandra 's Trisastisalakapurusa charitra hagiography of 63 illustrious persons , Sanghadasa's Vasudevahindi and Uttarapurana by Gunabhadara.

According to Jain cosmology , every half time cycle has nine sets of Balarama , Vasudeva and prativasudeva. Rama, Lakshmana and Ravana are the eighth baladeva , vasudeva and prativasudeva respectively.

Instead they serve as names of two distinct classes of mighty brothers, who appear nine times in each half time cycle and jointly rule half the earth as half- chakravartins.

Jaini traces the origin of this list of brothers to the jinacharitra lives of jinas by Acharya Bhadrabahu 3d—4th century BCE.

Perhaps this is because Rama, a liberated Jain Soul in his last life, is unwilling to kill. On the other hand, Lakshmana and Ravana go to Hell.

However, it is predicted that ultimately they both will be reborn as upright persons and attain liberation in their future births. According to Jain texts , Ravana will be the future Tirthankara omniscient teacher of Jainism.

The Jain versions have some variations from Valmiki's Ramayana. These four queens had four sons. Aparajita's son was Padma and he became known by the name of Rama.

Sumitra's son was Narayana: he came to be known by another name, lakshmana. Kaikeyi's son was Bharata and Suprabha's son was Shatrughna.

Furthermore, not much was thought of Ram's fidelity to Sita. Furthermore, Sita takes renunciation as a Jain ascetic after Rama abandons her and is reborn in heaven.

Rama, after lakshman's death, also renounces his kingdom and becomes a Jain monk. Ultimately, he attains Kevala Jnana omniscience and finally liberation.

Rama predicts that Ravana and Lakshmana, who were in the fourth hell , will attain liberation in their future births. Accordingly, Ravana is the future tirthankara of the next half ascending time cycle and Sita will be his Ganadhara.

In Guru Granth Sahib , there is a description of two types of Ramayana. One is a spiritual Ramayana which is the actual subject of Guru Granth Sahib, in which Ravana is ego, Sita is budhi intellect , Rama is inner soul and Laxman is mann attention, mind.

Guru Granth Sahib also believes in the existence of Dashavatara who were kings of their times which tried their best to restore order to the world.

Guru Granth Sahib states:. Rather there is no Ramayana written by any Guru. Guru Gobind Singh however is known to have written Ram Avatar in a text which is highly debated on its authenticity.

Guru Gobind Singh clearly states that though all the 24 avatars incarnated for the betterment of the world, but fell prey to ego and therefore were destroyed by the supreme creator.

He also said that the almighty, invisible, all prevailing God created great numbers of Indras, Moons and Suns, Deities, Demons and sages, and also numerous saints and Brahmanas enlightened people.

But they too were caught in the noose of death Kaal transmigration of the soul. Besides being the site of discovery of the oldest surviving manuscript of the Ramayana , Nepal gave rise to two regional variants in mid 19th — early 20th century.

One, written by Bhanubhakta Acharya , is considered the first epic of Nepali language , while the other, written by Siddhidas Mahaju in Nepal Bhasa was a foundational influence in the Nepal Bhasa renaissance.

Ramayana written by Bhanubhakta Acharya is one of the most popular verses in Nepal. The popularization of the Ramayana and its tale, originally written in Sanskrit Language was greatly enhanced by the work of Bhanubhakta.

It adapts the Hindu concepts to Buddhist themes and shows the balance of good and evil in the world. The Reamker has several differences from the original Ramayana , including scenes not included in the original and emphasis on Hanuman and Sovanna Maccha , a retelling which influences the Thai and Lao versions.

Reamker in Cambodia is not confined to the realm of literature but extends to all Cambodian art forms, such as sculpture, Khmer classical dance , theatre known as lakhorn luang the foundation of the royal ballet , poetry and the mural and bas-reliefs seen at the Silver Pagoda and Angkor Wat.

One of the recognizable modifications is the inclusion of the indigenous Javanese guardian demigod, Semar , and his sons, Gareng, Petruk, and Bagong who make up the numerically significant four Punokawan or "clown servants".

Kakawin Ramayana was further developed on the neighboring island of Bali becoming the Balinese Ramakavaca. IN the concluding portion of the Uttara or Supplemental Book, the descendants of Rama and his brothers are described as the founders of the great cities and kingdoms which flourished in Western India in the fourth and fifth centuries before the Christian Era.

Bharat had two sons, Taksha and Pushkala. The former founded Taksha-sila, to the east of the Indus, and known to Alexander and the Greeks as Taxila.

The latter founded Pushkala-vati, to the west of the Indus, and known to Alexander and the Greeks as Peukelaotis. Thus the sons of Bharat are said to have founded kingdoms which flourished on either side of the Indus river in the fourth century before Christ.

Lakshman had two sons, Angada and Chandraketu. The former founded the kingdom of Karupada, and the latter founded the city of Chandrakanti in the Malwa country.

Satrughna had two sons, Suvahu and Satrughati. The former became king of Mathura, and the latter ruled in Vidisha. Rama had two sons, Lava and Kusa.

The former ruled in Sravasti, which was the capital of Oudh at the time of the Buddha in the fifth and sixth centuries before Christ.

The latter founded Kusavati at the foot of the Vindhya mountains. The death of Rama and his brothers was in accordance with Hindu ideas of the death of the righteous.

Lakshman died under somewhat peculiar circumstances. A messenger from heaven sought a secret conference with Rama, and Rama placed Lakshman at the gate, with strict injunctions that whoever intruded on the private conference should be slain.

Lakshman himself had to disturb the conference by the solicitation of the celestial rishi Durvasa, who Edition: current; Page: [ ] always appears on earth to create mischief.

And true to the orders passed by Rama, he surrendered his life by penances, and went to heaven. In the fulness of time, Rama and his other brothers left Ayodhya, crossed the Sarayu, surrendered their mortal life, and entered heaven.

The Maha-bharata, based on the legends and traditions of a great historical war, is the Iliad of India.

The Ramayana, describing the wanderings and adventures of a prince banished from his country, has so far something in common with the Odyssey. Having placed before English readers a condensed translation of the Indian Iliad, I have thought it necessary to prepare the present condensed translation of the Indian Odyssey to complete the work.

The two together comprise the whole of the Epic literature of the ancient Hindus; and the two together present us with the most graphic and life-like picture that exists of the civilisation and culture, the political and social life, the religion and thought of ancient India.

The Ramayana, like the Maha-bharata, is a growth of centuries, but the main story is more distinctly the creation of one mind.

Among the many cultured races that flourished in Northern India about a thousand years before Christ, the Kosalas of Oudh and the Videhas of North Behar were perhaps the most cultured.

Their monarchs were famed for their learning as well as for their prowess. Their priests distinguished themselves by founding schools of learning which were known all over India.

Their sacrifices and gifts to the learned drew together the most renowned men of the age from distant regions.

Their celebrated Universities Parishads were frequented by students from surrounding countries. Their compilations of the old Vedic Hymns were used in various parts of India.

Their elaborate Brahmanas or Commentaries on the Vedas were handed down from generation to generation by priestly families.

Their researches into the mysteries of the Soul, Edition: current; Page: [ ] and into the nature of the One Universal Soul which pervades the creation, are still preserved in the ancient Upanishads, and are among the most valuable heritages which have been left to us by the ancients.

And their researches and discoveries in science and philosophy gave them the foremost place among the gifted races of ancient India.

It would appear that the flourishing period of the Kosalas and the Videhas had already passed away, and the traditions of their prowess and learning had become a revered memory in India, when the poet composed the great Epic which perpetuates their fame.

Distance of time lent a higher lustre to the achievements of these gifted races, and the age in which they flourished appeared to their descendants as the Golden Age of India.

To the imagination of the poet, the age of the Kosalas and Videhas was associated with all that is great and glorious, all that is righteous and true.

His description of Ayodhya, the capital town of the Kosalas, is a description of an ideal seat of righteousness.

Dasa-ratha the king of the Kosalas is an ideal king, labouring for the good of a loyal people. Rama, the eldest son of Dasa-ratha and the hero of the Epic, is an ideal prince, brave and accomplished, devoted to his duty, unfaltering in his truth.

The king of the Videhas, Janak or rather Janaka, but I have omitted the final a of some names in this translation , is a monarch and a saint. Sita, the daughter of Janak and the heroine of the Epic, is the ideal of a faithful woman and a devoted wife.

A pious reverence for the past pervades the great Epic; a lofty admiration of what is true and ennobling in the human character sanctifies the work; and delineations of the domestic life and the domestic virtues of the ancient Hindus, rich in tenderness and pathos, endear the picture to the hearts of the people of India to the present day.

It is probable that the first connected narrative of this Epic was composed within a few centuries after the glorious age of the Kosalas and the Videhas.

But the work became so popular that it grew with age. It grew,—not like the Maha-bharata by the incorporation of new episodes, tales and traditions,—but by fresh descriptions of the same scenes and incidents.

Generations of poem Edition: current; Page: [ ] were never tired of adding to the description of scenes which were dear to the Hindu, and patient Hindu listeners were never tired of listening to such repetitions.

The virtues of Rama and the faithfulness of Sita were described again and again in added lines and cantos.

The grief of the old monarch at the banishment of the prince, and the sorrows of the mother at parting from her son, were depicted by succeeding versifiers in fresh verses.

The long account of the grief of Rama at the loss of his wife, and stories of unending battles waged for her recovery, occupied generations of busy interpolators.

The Sloka verse in which much of the Ramayana is composed is the easiest of Sanscrit metres, and afforded a fatal facility to poets; and often we have the same scene, fully and amply described in one canto, repeated again in the two or three succeeding cantos.

The unity of the composition is lost by these additions, and the effect of the narrative is considerably weakened by such endless repetition.

It would appear that the original work ended with the sixth Book, which describes the return of the hero to his country and to his loving subjects.

The seventh Book is called Uttara or Supplemental, and in it we are told something of the dimensions of the poem, apparently after the fatal process of additions and interpolations had gone on for centuries.

We are informed that the poem consists of six Books and a Supplemental Book; and that it comprises cantos and 24, couplets.

And we are also told in this Supplemental Book that the descendants of Rama and his brothers founded some of the great towns and states which, we know from other sources, flourished in the fifth and fourth centuries before Christ.

It is probable therefore that the Epic, commenced after bc , had assumed something like its present shape a few centuries before the Christian Era.

The foregoing account of the genesis and growth of the Ramayana will indicate in what respects it resembles the Maha-bharata, and in what respects the two Indian Epics differ from each other.

The Maha-bharata grew out of the legends and traditions of a Edition: current; Page: [ ] great historical war between the Kurus and the Panchalas; the Ramayana grew out of the recollections of the golden age of the Kosalas and the Videhas.

The characters of the Maha-bharata are characters of flesh and blood, with the virtues and crimes of great actors in the historic world; the characters of the Ramayana are more often the ideals of manly devotion to truth, and of womanly faithfulness and love in domestic life.

The poet of the Maha-bharata relies on the real or supposed incidents of a war handed down from generation to generation in songs and ballads, and weaves them into an immortal work of art; the poet of the Ramayana conjures up the memories of a golden age, constructs lofty ideals of piety and faith, and describes with infinite pathos domestic scenes and domestic affections which endear the work to modern Hindus.

As a heroic poem the Maha-bharata stands on a higher level; as a poem delineating the softer emotions of our everyday life the Ramayana sends its roots deeper into the hearts and minds of the million in India.

These remarks will be probably made clearer by a comparison of what may be considered parallel passages in the two great Epics.

In heroic description, the bridal of Sita is poor and commonplace, compared with the bridal of Draupadi with all the bustle and tumult of a real contest among warlike suitors.

The rivalry between Rama and Ravan, between Lakshman and Indrajit, is feeble in comparison with the life-long jealousy and hatred which animated Arjun and Karna, Bhima and Duryodhan.

In the whole of the Ramayana there is no character with the fiery determination and the deep-seated hatred for the foe which inspire Karna or Arjun, Bhima or Duryodhan.

And in the unending battles waged by Rama and his allies there is no incident so stirring, so animated, so thrilling, as the fall of Abhimanyu, the vengeance of Arjun, the final contest between Arjun and Karna, or the final contest between Bhima and Duryodhan.

The whole tenor of the Ramayana is subdued and calm, pacific and pious; the whole tenor of the Maha-bharata is warlike and spirited.

And yet, without rivalling the heroic grandeur of the Maha-bharata, the Ramayana is immeasurably superior in its delineation of those softer and perhaps deeper emotions which enter into our everyday life, and hold the world together.

And these descriptions, essentially of Hindu life, are yet so true to nature that they apply to all races and nations.

There is something indescribably touching and tender in the description of the love of Rama for his subjects and the loyalty of his people towards Rama,—that loyalty which has ever been a part of the Hindu character in every age—.

The step-mother of Rama, won by the virtues and the kindliness of the prince, regards his proposed coronation with pride and pleasure, but her old nurse creeps into her confidence like a creeping serpent, and envenoms her heart with the poison of her own wickedness.

She arouses the Edition: current; Page: [ ] slumbering jealousy of a woman and awakens the alarms of a mother, till—. The determination of the young queen tells with terrible effect on the weakness and vacillation of the feeble old monarch, and Rama is banished at last.

And the scene closes with a pathetic story in which the monarch recounts his misdeed of past years, accepts his present suffering as the fruit of that misdeed, and dies in agony for his banished son.

The inner workings of the human heart and of human motives, the dark intrigue of a scheming dependant, the awakening jealousy and alarm of a wife and a mother, the determination of a woman and an imperious queen, and the feebleness and despair and death of a fond old father and husband, have never been more vividly described.

Shakespeare himself has not depicted the workings of stormy passions in the human heart more graphically or more vividly, with greater truth or with more terrible power.

It is truth and power in the depicting of such scenes, and not in the delineation of warriors and warlike incidents, that the Ramayana excels.

It is in the delineation of domestic incidents, domestic affections and domestic jealousies, which are appreciated by the prince and the peasant alike, that the Ramayana bases its appeal to the hearts of the million in India.

And beyond all this, the righteous devotion of Rama, and the faithfulness and womanly love of Sita, run like two threads of gold through the whole fabric of the Epic, and ennoble and sanctify the work in the eyes of Hindus.

Rama and Sita are the Hindu ideals of a Perfect Man and a Perfect Woman; their truth under trials and temptations, their endurance under privations, and their devotion to duty under all vicissitudes of fortune, form the Hindu ideal of a Perfect Life.

Our own ideals in the present day may not be the ideals of the tenth century before Christ or the fourteenth century after Christ; but mankind will not willingly let die those great creations of the past which shadow forth the ideals and beliefs of interesting periods in the progress of human civilisation.

Sorrow and suffering, trial and endurance, are a part of the Hindu ideal of a Perfect Life of righteousness. Rama suffers for fourteen years in exile, and is chastened by privations and misfortunes, before he ascends the throne of his father.

In a humble way this course of training was passed through by every pious Hindu of the ancient times. Every Aryan boy in India was taken away from his parents at an early age, and lived the hard life of an anchorite under his teacher for twelve or twenty-four or thirty-six years, before he entered the married life and settled down as a householder.

Every Aryan boy assumed the rough garment and the staff and girdle of a student, lived as a mendicant and begged his food from door to door, attended on his preceptor as a menial, and thus trained himself in endurance and suffering as well as in the traditional learning of the age, before he became a householder.

It is the truth and endurance of Rama under sufferings and privations which impart the deepest lessons to the Hindu character, and is the highest ideal of a Hindu righteous life.

The ancient ideal may seem to us far-fetched in these days, but we can never fully comprehend the great moral Epic of the Hindus unless we endeavour to study fully and clearly its relations to old Hindu ideas and old Hindu life.

The ideal of life was joy and beauty and gladness in ancient Greece; the ideal of life was piety and endurance and devotion in ancient India.

The tale of Helen was a tale of womanly beauty and loveliness which charmed the western world. The tale of Sita was a tale of womanly faith and self-abnegation which charmed and fascinated the Hindu world.

The creative imagination of the Hindus has conceived no loftier and holier character than Sita; the literature of the world has not produced a higher ideal of womanly love, womanly truth, and womanly devotion.

The modern reader will now comprehend why India produced, and has preserved for well-nigh three thousand years, two Epics instead of one national Epic.

No work of the imagination abides long unless it is animated by some sparks of imperishable truth, unless it truly embodies some portion of our human feelings, human faith and human life.

The Maha-bharata depicts the political life of Edition: current; Page: [ ] ancient India, with all its valour and heroism, ambition and lofty chivalry.

The Ramayana embodies the domestic and religious life of ancient India, with all its tenderness and sweetness, its endurance and devotion.

The one picture without the other were incomplete; and we should know but little of the ancient Hindus if we did not comprehend their inner life and faith as well as their political life and their warlike virtues.

The two together give us a true and graphic picture of ancient Indian life and civilisation; and no nation on earth has preserved a more faithful picture of its glorious past.

In condensing the Ramayana with its more than 24, Sanscrit couplets into English couplets I have followed the same plan which was adopted in my translation of the Maha-bharata.

I have selected those sections or cantos which tell the leading incidents of the Epic, and have translated the whole or main portions of them, and these selected passages are linked together by short notes.

It is the ancient poet of India, and not the translator, who narrates the old story; but he narrates only such portions of it as describe the leading incidents.

We are told that the sons of Rama recited the whole poem of 24, verses, divided into cantos or sections, in twenty-five days.

The modern reader has not the patience of the Hindu listener of the old school; but a selection of the leading portions of that immortal song arranged in verses and in 84 short sections, may possibly receive a hearing, even from the much-distracted modern reader.

While speaking of my own translation I must not fail to make some mention of my predecessors in this work. The magnificent edition of the Ramayana Bengal recension , published with an Italian translation by Gorresio, at the expense of Charles Albert King of Sardinia in , first introduced this great Epic to the European public; and it was not long before M.

Hippolyte Fauche presented the European world with a French translation of Edition: current; Page: [ ] this edition. The talented and indefatigable Mr.

Ralph Griffith, C. And a complete translation of the Ramayana into English prose has since appeared in Calcutta. The object of the present work is very different from that of these meritorious editions and translations.

The purpose of this work, as explained above, is not to attempt a complete translation of a voluminous Epic, but to place before the general reader the leading story of that Epic by translating a number of selected passages and connecting them together by short notes.

And the general reader who seeks for a practical acquaintance with the great Indian poem within a reasonable compass will, it is hoped, find in this book a handy and not unacceptable translation of the leading story of the Epic.

I have stated before that in India, the Ramayana is still a living tradition and a living faith. It forms the basis of the moral instruction of a nation, and it is a part of the lives of two hundred millions of people.

It is necessary to add that when the modern languages of India were first formed out of the ancient Sanscrit and Prakrits, in the ninth and tenth centuries after Christ, the Ramayana had the greatest influence in inspiring our modern poets and forming our modern tongues.

Edition: current; Page: [ ] Generations of Hindus in all parts of India have studied the ancient story in these modern translations; they have heard it recited in the houses of the rich; and they have seen it acted on the stage at religious festivals in every great town and every populous village through the length and breadth of India.

More than this, the story of Rama has inspired our religious reformers, and purified the popular faith of our modern times.

Rama, the true and dutiful, was accepted as the Spirit of God descended on earth, as an incarnation of Vishnu the Preserver of the World. The great teacher Ramanuja proclaimed the monotheism of Vishnu in Southern India in the twelfth century; the reformer Ramananda proclaimed the same faith in Northern India in the thirteenth or fourteenth century; and his follower the gifted Kabir conceived the bold idea of uniting Hindus and Mahomedans in the worship of One God.

The reformer Chaitanya preached the same sublime monotheism in Bengal, and the reformer Nanak in the Punjab, in the sixteenth century.

And down to the present day the popular mind in India, led away by the worship of many images in many temples, nevertheless holds fast to the cardinal idea of One God, and believes the heroes of the ancient Epics— Krishna and Rama —to be the incarnations of that God.

The various sects of the Hindus, specially the sects of Vishnu and of Siva who form the great majority of the people, quarrel about a name as they often did in Europe in the Middle Ages, and each sect gives to the Deity the special name by which the sect is known.

In the teeming villages of Bengal, in the ancient shrines of Northern India, and far away in the towns and hamlets of Southern India, the prevailing faith of the million is a popular monotheism underlying the various ceremonials in honour of various images and forms,—and that popular monotheism generally recognises the heroes of the two ancient Epics,— Krishna and Rama, Edition: current; Page: [ ] as the earthly incarnations of the great God who pervades and rules the universe.

To know the Indian Epics is to understand the Indian people better. And to trace the influence of the Indian Epics on the life and civilisation of the nation, and on the development of their modern languages, literatures, and religious reforms, is to comprehend the real history of the people during three thousand years.

THE scene of the Epic is the ancient kingdom of the Kurus which flourished along the upper course of the Ganges; and the historical fact on which the Epic is based is a great war which took place between the Kurus and a neighbouring tribe, the Panchalas, in the thirteenth or fourteenth century before Christ.

According to the Epic, Pandu and Dhrita-rashtra, who was born blind, were brothers. Pandu died early, and Dhrita-rashtra became king of the Kurus, and brought up the five sons of Pandu along with his hundred sons.

Yudhishthir, the eldest son of Pandu, was a man of truth and piety; Bhima, the second, was a stalwart fighter; and Arjun, the third son, distinguished himself above all the other princes in arms.

The two youngest brothers, Nakula and Sahadeva, were twins. Duryodhan was the eldest son of Dhrita-rashtra and was jealous of his cousins, the sons of Pandu.

A tournament was held, and in the course of the day a warrior named Karna, of unknown origin, appeared on the scene and proved himself a worthy rival of Arjun.

The rivalry between Arjun and Karna is the leading thought of the Epic, as the rivalry between Achilles and Hector is the leading thought of the Iliad.

It is only necessary to add that the sons of Pandu, as well as Karna were, like the heroes of Homer, god-born chiefs.

Some Edition: current; Page: [ ] god inspired the birth of each. Yudhishthir was the son of Dharma or Virtue, Bhima of Vayu or Wind, Arjun of Indra or Rain-god, the twin youngest were the sons of the Aswin twins, and Karna was the son of Surya the Sun, but was believed by himself and by all others to be the son of a simple chariot-driver.

The portion translated in this Book forms Sections cxxxiv. THE mutual jealousies of the princes increased from day to day, and when Yudhishthir, the eldest of all the princes and the eldest son of the late king Pandu, was recognised heir-apparent, the anger of Duryodhan and his brothers knew no bounds.

And they formed a dark scheme to kill the sons of Pandu. The sons of Pandu were induced with their mother to pay a visit to a distant town called Varanavata.

A house had been built there for their residence, constructed of inflammable materials. At the appointed time fire was set to the house; but the five brothers and their mother escaped the conflagration through a subterranean passage, retired into forests, and lived in the disguise of Brahamans.

In course of time they heard of the approaching celebration of the marriage of the princess of Panchala, an ancient kingdom in the vicinity of modern Kanouj.

All the monarchs of Northern India were invited, and the bride would choose her husband from among the assembled kings according to the ancient Swayamvara custom.

The five sons of Pandu decided to go and witness the ceremony. The portion translated in this Book formed Sections clxxxiv. The real significance of this strange legend is unknown.

The custom of brothers marrying a common wife prevails to this day in Thibet and among the hill-tribes of the Himalayas, but it never prevailed among the Aryan Hindus of India.

It is distinctly prohibited in their laws and institutes, and finds no sanction in their literature, ancient or modern. The legend in the Maha-bharata, of brothers marrying a wife in common, stands alone and without a parallel in Hindu traditions and literature.

Judging from the main incidents of the Epic, Draupadi might rather be regarded as the wife of the eldest brother Yudhishthir. Bhima had already mated himself to a female in a forest, by whom he had a son, Ghatotkacha, who distinguished himself in war later on.

On the other hand, Yudhishthir took to himself no wife save Draupadi, and she was crowned with Yudhishthir in the Rajasuya or Imperial Sacrifice.

Notwithstanding the legend, therefore, Draupadi might be regarded as wedded to Yudhishthir, Edition: current; Page: [ ] though won by the skill of Arjun, and this assumption would be in keeping with Hindu customs and laws, ancient and modern.

The jealous Duryodhan heard that his contrivance to kill his cousins at Varanavata had failed. He also heard that they had found a powerful friend in Drupad, and had formed an alliance with him.

It was no longer possible to keep them from their rightful inheritance. The Kuru kingdom was accordingly parcelled; Duryodhan retained the eastern and richer portion with its ancient capital Hastina-pura on the Ganges; and the sons of Pandu were given the western portion on the Jumna, which was then a forest and a wilderness.

The sons of Pandu cleared the forest and built a new capital Indra-prastha, the supposed ruins of which, near modern Delhi, are still pointed out to the curious traveller.

Yudhishthir the eldest of the five sons of Pandu, and now king of Indra-prastha, resolved to perform the Rajasuya sacrifice, which was a formal assumption of the Imperial title over all the kings of ancient India.

His brothers went out with troops in all directions to proclaim his supremacy over all surrounding kings. Jarasandha, the powerful and semi-civilised king of Magadha or South Behar, opposed and was killed; but other monarchs recognised the supremacy of Yudhishthir and came to the sacrifice with tributes.

King Dhrita-rashtra and his sons, now reigning at Hastina-pura, were politely invited to take a share in the performance of the sacrifice.

The portion translated in this Book forms Sections xxxiii. Yudhishthir with all his piety and righteousness had one weakness, the love of gambling, which was one of the besetting sins of the monarchs of the day.

Sakuni was an expert at false dice, and challenged Yudhishthir, and Yudhishthir held it a point of honour not to decline such a challenge.

He came from his new capital, Indra-prastha, to Hastina-pura the capital of Duryodhan, with his mother and brothers and Draupadi.

And as Yudhishthir lost game after game, he was stung with his losses, and with the recklessness of a gambler still went on with the fatal game.

His wealth and hoarded gold and jewels, his steeds, elephants and cars, his slaves male and female, his empire and possessions, were all staked and lost!

The madness increased, and Yudhishthir staked his brothers, and then himself, and then the fair Draupadi, and lost! And thus the Emperor of Indra-prastha and his family were deprived of every possession on earth, and became the bond-slaves of Duryodhan.

The old king Dhrita-rashtra released them from actual slavery, but the five brothers retired to forests as homeless exiles.

Portions of Section lxv. TRUE to their word the sons of Pandu went with Draupadi to exile, and passed twelve years in the wilderness; and many were the incidents which checkered their forest life.

Krishna, who had stood by Yudhishthir in his prosperity, now came to visit him in his adversity; he consoled Draupadi in her distress, and gave good advice to the brothers.

Bhima too was of the same mind, but Yudhishthir would not be moved from his plighted word. The great rishi Vyasa came to visit Yudhishthir, and advised Arjun, great archer as he was, to acquire celestial arms by penance and worship.

Arjun followed the advice, met the god Siva in the guise of a hunter, pleased him by his prowess in combat, and obtained his blessings and the pasupata weapon.

In the meanwhile Duryodhan, not content with sending his cousins to exile, wished to humiliate them still more by appearing before them in all his regal power and splendour.

Matters however turned out differently from what he expected, and he became involved in a quarrel with some gandharvas, a class of aerial beings.

Duryodhan was taken captive by them, and it was the Pandav brothers who released him from his captivity, and allowed him to return to his kingdom in peace.

This act of generosity rankled in his bosom and deepened his hatred. Jayadratha, king of the Sindhu or Indus country, and a friend Edition: current; Page: [ ] and ally of Duryodhan, came to the woods, and in the absence of the Pandav brothers carried off Draupadi.

The Pandavs however pursued the king, chastised him for his misconduct, and rescued Draupadi. Still more interesting than these various incidents are the tales and legends with which this book is replete.

Great saints came to see Yudhishthir in his exile, and narrated to him legends of ancient times and of former kings.

One of these beautiful episodes, the tale of Nala and Damayanti, has been translated into graceful English verse by Dean Milman, and is known to many English readers.

The legend of Agastya who drained the ocean dry; of Parasu-Rama a Brahman who killed the Kshatriyas of the earth; of Bhagiratha who brought down the Ganges from the skies to the earth; of Manu and the universal deluge; of Vishnu and various other gods; of Rama and his deeds which form the subject of the Epic Ramayana; —these and various other legends have been interwoven in the account of the forest-life of the Pandavs, and make it a veritable storehouse of ancient Hindu tales and traditions.

Among these various legends and tales I have selected one which is singular and striking. The story is known by Hindu women high and low, rich and poor, in all parts of India; and on a certain night in the year millions of Hindu women celebrate a rite in honour of the woman whose love was not conquered by death.

Legends like these, though they take away from the unity and conciseness of the Epic, impart a moral instruction to the millions of India the value of which cannot be overestimated.

The portion translated in this Book forms Sections ccxcii. THE conditions of the banishment of the sons of Pandu were hard. They must pass twelve years in exile, and then they must remain a year in concealment.

If they were discovered within this last year, they must go into exile for another twelve years. Having passed the twelve years of exile in forests, the Pandav brothers disguised themselves and entered into the menial service of Virata, king of the Matsyas, to pass the year of concealment.

Yudhishthir presented himself as a Brahman, skilled in dice, and became a courtier of the king. For Arjun, who was so well known, a stricter concealment was necessary.

He wore conch bangles and earrings and braided his hair, like those unfortunate beings whom nature has debarred from the privileges of men and women, and he lived in the inner apartments of the king.

He assumed the name of Brihannala, and taught the inmates of the royal household in music and dancing. Draupadi too disguised herself as a waiting-woman, and served the princess of the Matsya house in that humble capacity.

In these disguises the Pandav brothers safely passed a year in concealment in spite of all search which Duryodhan made after them.

At last an incident happened which led to their discovery when the year was out. Cattle-lifting was a common practice with the kings of ancient India, as with the chiefs of ancient Greece.

The king of the Trigartas and the king of the Kurus combined and fell on the king of the Matsyas in order to drive off the numerous herd Edition: current; Page: [ ] of fine cattle for which his kingdom was famed.

The Trigartas entered the Matsya kingdom from the south-east, and while Virata went out with his troops to meet the foe, Duryodhan with his Kuru forces fell on the kingdom from the north.

When news came that the Kurus had invaded the kingdom, there was no army in the capital to defend it.

King Virata had gone out with most of his troops to face the Trigartas in the southeast, and the prince Uttara had no inclination to face the Kurus in the north.

The disguised Arjun now came to the rescue in the manner described in this Book. The description of the bows, arrows, and swords of the Pandav brothers which they had concealed in a tree, wrapped like human corpses to frighten away inquisitive travellers, throws some light on the arts and manufactures of ancient times.

The portions translated in this Book form Sections xxxv. THE term of banishment having expired, Yudhishthir demanded that the kingdom of Indra-prastha should be restored to him.

The old Dhrita-rashtra and his queen and the aged and virtuous councillors advised the restoration, but the jealous Duryodhan hated his cousins with a genuine hatred, and would not consent.

All negotiations were therefore futile, and preparations were made on both sides for the most sanguinary and disastrous battle that had ever been witnessed in Northern India.

The portions translated in this Book are from Sections i. ALL negotiations for a peaceful partition of the Kuru kingdom having failed, both parties now prepared for a battle, perhaps the most sanguinary that was fought on the plains of India in the ancient times.

It was a battle of nations, for all the warlike races in Northern India took a share in it. Yudhishthir had a smaller army, said to have been seven akshauhinis in number, which we may, by a similar reduction, reckon to be seventy thousand.

Krishna joined him as his friend and adviser, and as the charioteer of Arjun, but the Vrishnis as a nation had joined Duryodhan. When the two armies were drawn up in array and faced each other, and Arjun saw his revered elders and dear friends and relations among his foes, he was unwilling to fight.

It was on this occasion that Krishna explained to him the great principles of Duty in that memorable work called the Bhagavat-gita which has been translated into so many European languages.

The principal incidents of these ten days, ending with the fall of Bhishma, are narrated in this Book. For five days Drona held his own against the Pandavs, and some of the incidents of these days, like the fall of Abhimanyu and the vengeance of Arjun, are among the most stirring passages in the Epic.

The description of the different standards of the Pandav and the Kuru warriors is also interesting. At last Drona slew his ancient foe the king of the Panchalas, and was then slain by his son the prince of the Panchalas.

New York: E. How charming is divine philosophy milton. DUTT Romesh Chunder Dutt, to whom English readers are indebted for the condensed metrical versions of the ancient Indian epics given in this volume, was one of the most distinguished sons of modern India.

Free English translation by R. Translation into English Prose. Edited by Manmatha Nath Dutt. Condensed into English Verse by Romesh Dutt.

Works on: Sir M. Prose literal translation, by Manmatha Nath Dutt. Many English translations of portions of the whole epic have been published.

Works on: H. Oman see above. Sita-Swayamvara The Bridal of Sita. Page 1 II. Vana-Gamana-Adesa The Banishment. Dasaratha-Viyoga The Death of the King.

Panchavati On the Banks of the Godavari. Sita-Harana Sita Lost. Kishkindha In the Nilgiri Mountains.

Sita-Sandesa Sita Discovered. Ravana-Sabha The Council of War. Yuddha The War in Ceylon. Aswa-Medha Sacrifice of the Horse. Astra Darsana The Tournament.

Page II. Rajasuya The Imperial Sacrifice. Dyuta The Fatal Dice. Go-Harana Cattle-Lifting. Udyoga The Council of War. Bhishma-Badha Fall of Bhishma.

Drona-Badha Fall of Drona. Karna-Badha Fall of Karna. Sraddha Funeral Rites. Peaceful lived the righteous people, rich in wealth in merit high, Envy dwelt not in their bosoms and their accents shaped no lie, Fathers with their happy households owned their cattle, corn and gold, Galling penury and famine in Ayodhya had no hold, Neighbours lived in mutual kindness helpful with their ample wealth, None who begged the wasted refuse, none who lived by fraud and stealth!

And they wore the gem and earring, wreath and fragrant sandal paste, And their arms were decked with bracelets, and their necks with nishkas graced, Cheat and braggart and deceiver lived not in the ancient town, Proud despiser of the lowly wore not insults in their frown, Edition: current; Page: [ 3 ] Poorer fed not on the richer, hireling friend upon the great, None with low and lying accents did upon the proud man wait!

Twice-born men were free from passion, lust of gold and impure greed, Faithful to their Rites and Scriptures, truthful in their word and deed, Altar blazed in every mansion, from each home was bounty given, Stooped no man to fulsome falsehood, questioned none the will of Heaven.

Kshatras bowed to holy Brahmans, Vaisyas to the Kshatras bowed, Toiling Sudras lived by labour, of their honest duty proud, To the Gods and to the Fathers, to each guest in virtue trained, Rites were done with due devotion as by holy writ ordained.

Pure each caste in due observance, stainless was each ancient rite, And the nation thrived and prospered by its old and matchless might, And each man in truth abiding lived a long and peaceful life, With his sons and with his grandsons, with his loved and honoured wife.

Thus was ruled the ancient city by her monarch true and bold, As the earth was ruled by Manu in the misty days of old, Troops who never turned in battle, fierce as fire and strong and brave, Guarded well her lofty ramparts as the lions guard the cave.

Queens of proud and peerless beauty born of houses rich in fame, Loved of royal Dasa-ratha to his happy mansion came, Queen Kausalya blessed with virtue true and righteous Rama bore, Queen Kaikeyi young and beauteous bore him Bharat rich in lore, Queen Simitra bore the bright twins, Lakshman and Satrughna bold, Four brave princes served their father in the happy days of old!

II: Mithila, and the Breaking of the Bow Janak monarch of Videha spake his message near and far,— He shall win my peerless Sita who shall bend my bow of war,— Suitors came from farthest regions, warlike princes known to fame, Vainly strove to wield the weapon, left Videha in their shame.

Gods before the bow of Rudra have in righteous terror quailed. Free to him this royal dome, Since my kingdom is his empire and my palace is his home, And the maidens, flame-resplendent, done each fond Kautuka rite, Beaming in their bridal beauty tread the sacrificial site!

Edition: current; Page: [ 14 ] And a rain of flowers descended from the sky serene and fair, And a soft celestial music filled the fresh and fragrant air, Bright Gandharvas skilled in music waked the sweet celestial song, Fair Apsaras in their beauty on the green sward tripped along!

As the flowery rain descended and the music rose in pride, Thrice around the lighted altar every bridegroom led his bride, And the nuptial rites were ended, princes took their brides away, Janak followed with his courtiers, and the town was proud and gay!

VII: Return to Ayodhya With his wedded sons and daughters and his guard in bright array, To the famed and fair Ayodhya, Dasa-ratha held his way, And they reached the ancient city decked with banners bright and brave, And the voice of drum and trumpet hailed the home-returning brave.

Fragrant blossoms strewed the pathway, song of welcome filled the air, Joyous men and merry women issued forth in garments fair, And they lifted up their faces and they waved their hands on high, And they raised the voice of welcome as their righteous king drew nigh.

Greeted by his loving subjects, welcomed by his priests of fame, Dasa-ratha with the princes to his happy city came, With the brides and stately princes in the town he held his way, Entered slow his lofty palace bright as peak of Himalay.

Queen Kausalya blessed with virtue, Queen Kaikeyi in her pride. Queen Sumitra sweetly loving, greeted every happy bride, Edition: current; Page: [ 15 ] Soft-eyed Sita noble-destined, Urmila of spotless fame, Mandavi and Sruta-kirti to their loving mothers came.

Decked in silk and queenly garments they performed each pious rite, Brought their blessings on the household, bowed to Gods of holy might, Bowed to all the honoured elders, blest the children with their love, And with soft and sweet endearment by their loving consorts moved.

And he pleased his happy mother with a fond and filial care, And his elders and his kinsmen with devotion soft and fair, Edition: current; Page: [ 16 ] Brahmans blessed the righteous Rama for his faith in gods above, People in the town and hamlet blessed him with their loyal love!

Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] For his great and gallant princes were to him his life and light, Were a part of Dasa-ratha like his hands and arms of might, But of all his righteous children righteous Rama won his heart, As Swayambhu of all creatures, was his dearest, holiest part, For his Rama strong and stately was his eldest and his best, Void of every baser passion and with every virtue blest!

Soft in speech, sedate and peaceful, seeking still the holy path, Calm in conscious worth and valour, taunt nor cavil waked his wrath, In the field of war excelling, boldest warrior midst the bold, In the palace chambers musing on the tales by elders told, Faithful to the wise and learned, truthful in his deed and word, Rama dearly loved his people and his people loved their lord!

To the Brahmans pure and holy Rama due obeisance made, To the poor and to the helpless deeper love and honour paid, Spirit of his race and nation was to high-souled Rama given, Thoughts that widen human glory, deeds that ope the gates of heaven!

Not intent on idle cavil Rama spake with purpose high, And the God of speech might envy when he spake or made reply, In the learning of the Vedas highest meed and glory won, In the skill of arms the father scarcely matched he gallant son!

Taught by sages and by elders in the manners of his race, Rama grew in social virtues and each soft endearing grace, Taught by inborn pride and wisdom patient purpose to conceal, Deep determined was his effort, dauntless was his silent will!

Dear to him appeared his purpose, Rama to his people dear, Private wish and public duty made his path serene and clear, Dasa-ratha called his Council, summoned chiefs from town and plain, Welcomed too from distant regions monarchs and the kings of men, Mansions meet for prince and chieftain to his guests the monarch gave, Gracious as the Lord of Creatures held the gathering rich and brave!

Peers and burghers, let your monarch, now his lifelong labour done, For the weal of loving subjects on his empire seat his son, Indra -like in peerless valour, rishi -like in holy lore, Rama follows Dasa-ratha, but in virtues stands before!

Speak your thought and from this bosom lift a load of toil and care, On the proud throne of my fathers let me place a peerless heir, Edition: current; Page: [ 21 ] Speak your thought, my chiefs and people, if this purpose please you well, Or if wiser, better counsel in your wisdom ye can tell, Speak your thought without compulsion, though this plan to me be dear, If some middle course were wiser, if some other way were clear!

Bright Immortals know his valour; with his brother Lakshman bold He hath never failed to conquer hostile town or castled hold, And returning from his battles, from the duties of the war, Riding on his royal tusker or his all-resistless car, As a father to his children to his loving men he came, Blessed our homes and maids and matrons till our infants lisped his name, For our humble woes and troubles Rama hath the ready tear, To our humble tales of suffering Rama lends his willing ear!

Actors gay and nimble dancers, singers skilled in lightsome song, With their antics and their music pleased the gay and gathered throng, And the people met in conclaves, spake of Rama, Regent Heir, And the children by the road-side lisped of Rama brave and fair!

Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] Women wove the scented garland, merry maids the censer lit, Men with broom and sprinkled water swept the spacious mart and street, Rows of trees and posts they planted hung with lamps for coming night, That the midnight dark might rival splendour of the noonday light!

And the rolling tide of nations raised their voices loud and high, Like the tide of sounding ocean when the full moon lights the sky, And Ayodhya thronged by people from the hamlet, mart and lea, Was tumultuous like the ocean thronged by creatures of the sea!

Know the truth, O witless woman! Edition: current; Page: [ 29 ] Through the shady palace garden where the peacock wandered free.

Lute and lyre poured forth their music, parrot flew from tree to tree, Through the corridor of creepers, painted rooms by artists done, And the halls where scented Champak and the flaming Asok shone, Through the portico of splendour graced by silver, tusk and gold, Radiant with his thought of gladness walked the monarch proud and bold.

Through the lines of scented blossoms which by limpid waters shone, And the rooms with seats of silver, ivory bench and golden throne. Thoughts of love and gentle dalliance woke within his ancient heart, And the magic of her beauty and the glamour of her art, With a soft desire the monarch vainly searched the vanished fair, Found her not in royal chamber, found her not in gay parterre!

Thither flew the stricken monarch; on the bare and unswept ground, Trembling with tumultuous passion was the Queen Kaikeyi found, On the cold uncovered pavement sorrowing lay the weeping wife, Young wife of an ancient husband, dearer than his heart and life!

If some unknown ailment pains thee, evil spirit of the air, Skilled physicians wait upon thee, priests with incantations fair, If from human foe some insult, wipe thy tears and doom his fate, Rich reward or royal vengeance shall upon thy mandate wait!

Banish far my Queen Kausalya, Queen Sumitra saintly wife, Wrench from me my ancient empire, from my bosom wrench my life But with brave and princely Rama never can his father part, Till his ancient life is ended, cold and still his beating heart!

Ask for other boon, Kaikeyi, aught my sea-girt empire yields, Wealth or treasure, gem or jewel, castled town or smiling fields, Ask for other gift, Kaikeyi, and thy wishes shall be given, Stain me not with crime unholy in the eye of righteous Heaven!

Queen Kausalva, dear-loved woman! Reft of sense appeared the monarch, crushed beneath a load of pain, Heaving oft a sigh of sorrow as his heart would break in twain, Like the ocean tempest-shaken, like the sun in eclipse pale, Like a crushed repenting rishi when his truth and virtue fail!

Valmiki Ramayana: eastern recension. Sundarakandam, Band 3,Teil 2. Cover. Vālmīki. Indian Heritage Trust, 0 Rezensionen. The Ramayan is an ancient Sanskrit epic. It is attributed to the Hindu sage Valmiki and forms an important part of the Hindu canon (smṛti). The Ramayana is one. Lesen Sie „Hindu literature: Comprising The Book of good counsels, Nala and Damayanti, The Ramayana, and Sakoontala [Illustrated]“ von Anonymous. Das Ramayana in deutscher Übersetzung. erschienen) und der Verlag meiner Ausgabe: Eastern Book House, Rajendra Nagar/Patna, Nachdruck von Find Instant Quality Results Now! Get Ramayana Audio Book.

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He tells her that she has a one year to consider his love, after which he will kill her and eat her alive. Sita weeps in terror, but refuses to give in.

In Panchavati, Rama and Lakshmana realize that they have been deceived. When they find the hut empty, they realize that Sita has been kidnapped, and they follow the trail south.

They find the dying Jatayu, who tells them that Ravana has kidnapped Sita. The two brothers perform funeral rites for Jatayu, and then continue their search for Ravana and Sita.

On the way, the brothers meet a terrible demon named Kabandha , who has the form of a body with no legs or head, only arms and a gaping mouth.

After they dispatch him, he explains that Indra transformed him into this ugly shape; formerly, he was a celestial archer. Thankful to be liberated from this terrible punishment, he tells the brothers that they will find victory against Ravana if they seek Sugriva , the prince of vanaras a magical race of monkeys who lives in Rishyalooka.

On their way to the monkey king, the brothers meet the female mystic Shabari, who has refused to die until she meets the holy Rama. She offers them her blessings and departs for heaven.

Rama weeps for Sita, but Lakshmana consoles him and urges him forward in their quest. This section of the poem develops the theme of the complex nature of good and evil; these values are opposite, but they are not innate.

A number of rakshasas are not really rakshasas at all, but are instead sacred divine beings that are cursed to live in rakshasa form.

For example, Viradha is actually a gandharva, an elf-like being, who was cursed by the god Kubera to live as a rakshasa. After Rama slays him, Viradha appears in his gandharva form to explain what has happened and to thank the prince for freeing him from this terrible state.

For at least some of these rakshasas, evil is not something innate but rather the result of a curse or error. Becoming a rakshasa is as awful a state as being attacked by a rakshasa.

When Rama slays these cursed beings, he returns them to their original state and allows them to move on to a new existence.

The fact that some rakshasas are thankful to be killed is informed by the cultural understanding of death and rebirth in Hinduism.

In this religion, one's death is not the end of one's story; it's merely an interlude before one is reincarnated into a different form.

One of the qualities that differentiate virtuous humans and un-virtuous rakshasas is control over one's sexual impulses. The rakshasas are full of lust and have no respect for the bounds of marriage; Surpanakha shamelessly tries to seduce Rama in front of his wife Sita, and Ravana steals Sita away from her husband despite her cries of protest.

On the other hand, the most admirable people in the Ramayana have great control over their sexual desires: Rama could have any woman he wants, but he is content with his wife Sita.

Lakshmana has left his wife behind when he was exiled from Ayodhya, but he never expresses any sort of lust or jealousy. Rama's martial prowess has grown greatly.

He slayed Rakshasas as a young man, but now he is able to stand against an entire rakshasa army and defeat them.

His supernatural weapons assist him greatly in this endeavor, but above all it is his true identity as the god Vishnu that enables him to rid the world of this evil.

This battle is not mere physical violence; it is also a metaphor for the destruction of evil by the good. This book of the poem introduces us to Ravana, the primary antagonist.

He is immensely powerful, and even the gods send him tribute. He is perhaps the only being living who can defeat Rama. He kindles Rama's fury by kidnapping Sita through deception and trickery.

Again Sita showcases the virtues that make her such an exemplar in South Asian culture. Despite his terrifying appearance, Ravana is irresistible to women; he knows how to be gentle enough with them to gain their trust, and his harem is full of women.

Additionally, any woman who becomes his wife has access to immense riches and power. Yet despite Ravana's charm and the wealth that would come with submitting to him, Sita will not betray her beloved but penniless husband.

Who is the king of Mithila? Janaka was an ancient Indian king of Videha which was located in Mithila region, approximately in the 8th or 7th century BCE.

Who gave Lord Rama Brahmastra along with other weapons? The Brahmastra is not a physical weapon. It is a force, which is called down by chanting mantras.

What does it mean that Rama became an avatar of the god Vishnu? The Ramayana study guide contains literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis.

The Ramayana essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Ramayana by Valmiki.

Remember me. Forgot your password? Entranced by the beauty of the deer, Sita pleads with Rama to capture it. Rama, aware that this is the ploy of the demons, cannot dissuade Sita from her desire and chases the deer into the forest, leaving Sita under Lakshmana's guard.

After some time, Sita hears Rama calling out to her; afraid for his life, she insists that Lakshmana rush to his aid. Lakshmana tries to assure her that Rama cannot be hurt that easily and that it is best if he continues to follow Ram's orders to protect her.

On the verge of hysterics, Sita insists that it is not she but Rama who needs Lakshman's help. He obeys her wish but stipulates that she is not to leave the cottage or entertain any stranger.

He draws a chalk outline, the Lakshmana rekha , around the cottage and casts a spell on it that prevents anyone from entering the boundary but allows people to exit.

With the coast finally clear, Ravana appears in the guise of an ascetic requesting Sita's hospitality. Unaware of her guest's plan, Sita is tricked into leaving the rekha and is then forcibly carried away by Ravana.

Jatayu , a vulture , tries to rescue Sita, but is mortally wounded. At Lanka, Sita is kept under the guard of rakshasis. Ravana asks Sita to marry him, but she refuses, being eternally devoted to Rama.

Meanwhile, Rama and Lakshmana learn about Sita's abduction from Jatayu and immediately set out to save her. During their search, they meet Kabandha and the ascetic Shabari , who direct them towards Sugriva and Hanuman.

Kishkindha Kanda is set in the ape Vanara citadel Kishkindha. Rama and Lakshmana meet Hanuman, the biggest devotee of Rama, greatest of ape heroes and an adherent of Sugriva , the banished pretender to the throne of Kishkindha.

Rama befriends Sugriva and helps him by killing his elder brother Vali thus regaining the kingdom of Kishkindha, in exchange for helping Rama to recover Sita.

However Sugriva soon forgets his promise and spends his time in enjoying his powers. The clever former ape queen Tara wife of Vali calmly intervenes to prevent an enraged Lakshmana from destroying the ape citadel.

She then eloquently convinces Sugriva to honour his pledge. Sugriva then sends search parties to the four corners of the earth, only to return without success from north, east and west.

The southern search party under the leadership of Angada and Hanuman learns from a vulture named Sampati elder brother of Jatayu , that Sita was taken to Lanka.

Sundara Kand forms the heart of Valmiki's Ramyana and consists of a detailed, vivid account of Hanuman 's adventures. After learning about Sita, Hanuman assumes a gargantuan form and makes a colossal leap across the sea to Lanka.

On the way he meets with many challenges like facing a Gandharva kanya who comes in the form of a demon to test his abilities.

He encounters a mountain named Mainakudu who offers Hanuman assistance and offers him rest. Hanuman refuses because there is little time remaining to complete the search for Sita.

After entering into Lanka, he finds a demon, Lankini, who protects all of Lanka. Hanuman fights with her and subjugates her in order to get into Lanka.

Here, Hanuman explores the demons' kingdom and spies on Ravana. He locates Sita in Ashoka grove, where she is being wooed and threatened by Ravana and his rakshasis to marry Ravana.

Hanuman reassures Sita, giving Ram's signet ring as a sign of good faith. He offers to carry Sita back to Ram; however, she refuses and says that it is not the dharma, stating that Ramyana will not have significance if Hanuman carries her to Rama — "When Rama is not there Ravana carried Sita forcibly and when Ravana was not there, Hanuman carried Sita back to Ram".

She says that Rama himself must come and avenge the insult of her abduction. Hanuman then wreaks havoc in Lanka by destroying trees and buildings and killing Ravana's warriors.

He allows himself to be captured and delivered to Ravana. He gives a bold lecture to Ravana to release Sita. He is condemned and his tail is set on fire, but he escapes his bonds and leaping from roof to roof, sets fire to Ravana's citadel and makes the giant leap back from the island.

The joyous search party returns to Kishkindha with the news. Also known as Lanka Kanda , this book describes the war between the army of Rama and the army of Ravana.

Having received Hanuman's report on Sita, Rama and Lakshmana proceed with their allies towards the shore of the southern sea. There they are joined by Ravana's renegade brother Vibhishana.

The apes named Nala and Nila construct a floating bridge known as Rama Setu [22] across the sea, using stones that floated on water because they had Ram's name written on them.

The princes and their army cross over to Lanka. A lengthy war ensues. During a battle, Ravana's son Indrajit hurls a powerful weapon at Lakshmana, who is badly wounded.

So Hanuman assumes a gigantic form and flies from Lanka to the Himalayas. Upon reaching Mount Sumeru, Hanuman was unable to identify the herb that could cure Lakshmana and so decided to bring the entire mountain back to Lanka.

Eventually, the war ends when Rama kills Ravana. Rama then installs Vibhishana on the throne of Lanka.

On meeting Sita, Rama asks her to undergo an Agni Pariksha test of fire to prove her chastity, as he wants to get rid of the rumors surrounding her purity.

When Sita plunges into the sacrificial fire, Agni , lord of fire raises Sita, unharmed, to the throne, attesting to her innocence.

In Tulsidas 's Ramacharitamanas , Sita was under the protection of Agni see Maya Sita so it was necessary to bring her out before reuniting with Rama.

Uttara Kanda is the last book of Ramayana. It is a book of made up of conversations between Kakbhusundi and Garud.

This book was added by Tulsidas after hearing it from Kakbhusundi and Garud. At the expiration of his term of exile, Rama returns to Ayodhya with Sita, Lakshmana and Hanuman, where the coronation is performed.

On being asked to prove his devotion to Rama, Hanuman tears his chest open and to everyone's surprise, there is an image of Rama and Sita inside his chest.

Rama rules Ayodhya and the reign is called Ram-Rajya a place where the common folk are happy, fulfilled and satisfied.

This is a book kanda which was not written neither in the original Valmiki Ramayan nor by Tulsidas' Ramcharitmanas. In this chapter, as time passes in reign of Rama, spies start getting rumours that people are questioning Sita's purity as she stayed in the home of another man for a year without her husband.

The common folk start gossiping about Sita and question Ram's decision to make her Queen. Rama is extremely distraught on hearing the news, but finally tells Lakshmana that the purity of the Queen of Ayodhya has to be above any gossip and rumour.

He instructs him to take Sita to a forest outside Ayodhya and leave her there. Further, to tell her not to identify herself as the Queen of Ayodhya as that would be an insult to our forefathers.

Lakshmana reluctantly drops Sita in a forest for another exile. Sita finds refuge in Sage Valmiki 's ashram, where she gives birth to twin boys, Luv and Kush.

Meanwhile, Rama conducts an Ashwamedha yajna A holy declaration of the authority of the king. Luv and Kusha capture the horse sign of the yajna and defeat the whole army of Ayodhya which come to protect the horse.

Later on, both the brothers defeat Lakshmana , Bharat, Shatrughan and other warriors and take Hanuman as prisoner.

Finally Rama himself arrives and defeats the two mighty brothers. Valmiki updates Sita about this development and advises both the brothers to go to Ayodhya and tell the story of Sita's sacrifice to the common folks.

Both brothers arrive at Ayodhya but face many difficulties while convincing the people. Hanuman helps both the brothers in this task.

At one point of time, Valmiki brings Sita forward. Seeing Sita, Rama realises that Luv and Kush are his own sons. Again complicit Nagarsen One of the primaries who instigated the hatred towards Sita challenges Sita's character and asks her to prove her purity.

Sita is overflown with emotions and decides to go back to Mother Earth from where she emerged. She prays to her mother Bhoomidevi Goddess of Earth , the ground breaks into half and closes after Sita vanishes into it.

Rama rules Ayodhya for many years and finally takes Samadhi into Sarayu river along with his 3 brothers and leaves the world. He goes back to Vaikuntha in his Vishnu form.

As in many oral epics, multiple versions of the Ramayana survive. In particular, the Ramayana related in north India differs in important respects from that preserved in south India and the rest of southeast Asia.

There are diverse regional versions of the Ramayana written by various authors in India. Some of them differ significantly from each other.

During the 12th century, Kamban wrote Ramavataram , known popularly as Kambaramayanam in Tamil , but references to Ramayana story appear in Tamil literature as early as 3rd century CE.

The earliest translation to a regional Indo-Aryan language is the early 14th century Saptakanda Ramayana in Assamese by Madhava Kandali.

Valmiki's Ramayana inspired Sri Ramacharit Manas by Tulsidas in , an epic Awadhi a dialect of Hindi version with a slant more grounded in a different realm of Hindu literature, that of bhakti ; it is an acknowledged masterpiece of India, popularly known as Tulsi-krita Ramayana.

Gujarati poet Premanand wrote a version of the Ramayana in the 17th century. There is a sub-plot to the Ramayana , prevalent in some parts of India, relating the adventures of Ahiravan and Mahi Ravana, evil brother of Ravana, which enhances the role of Hanuman in the story.

Hanuman rescues Rama and Lakshmana after they are kidnapped by the Ahi-Mahi Ravana at the behest of Ravana and held prisoner in a cave, to be sacrificed to the goddess Kali.

Adbhuta Ramayana is a version that is obscure but also attributed to Valmiki — intended as a supplementary to the original Valmiki Ramayana.

In this variant of the narrative, Sita is accorded far more prominence, such as elaboration of the events surrounding her birth — in this case to Ravana 's wife, Mandodari as well as her conquest of Ravana's older brother in the Mahakali form.

Even before Kambar wrote the Ramavataram in Tamil in the 12th century AD, there are many ancient references to the story of Ramayana, implying that the story was familiar in the Tamil lands even before the Common Era.

Sita was the wife of Rama. To protect his children from his wife Kaikeyi, who wished to promote her son Bharata, Dasharatha sent the three to a hermitage in the Himalayas for a twelve-year exile.

There is no Ravan in this version i. But, Ravana appears in other Buddhist literature, the Lankavatara Sutra. Jain versions of the Ramayana can be found in the various Jain agamas like Ravisena's Padmapurana story of Padmaja and Rama , Padmaja being the name of Sita , Hemacandra 's Trisastisalakapurusa charitra hagiography of 63 illustrious persons , Sanghadasa's Vasudevahindi and Uttarapurana by Gunabhadara.

According to Jain cosmology , every half time cycle has nine sets of Balarama , Vasudeva and prativasudeva. Rama, Lakshmana and Ravana are the eighth baladeva , vasudeva and prativasudeva respectively.

Instead they serve as names of two distinct classes of mighty brothers, who appear nine times in each half time cycle and jointly rule half the earth as half- chakravartins.

Jaini traces the origin of this list of brothers to the jinacharitra lives of jinas by Acharya Bhadrabahu 3d—4th century BCE. Perhaps this is because Rama, a liberated Jain Soul in his last life, is unwilling to kill.

On the other hand, Lakshmana and Ravana go to Hell. However, it is predicted that ultimately they both will be reborn as upright persons and attain liberation in their future births.

According to Jain texts , Ravana will be the future Tirthankara omniscient teacher of Jainism. The Jain versions have some variations from Valmiki's Ramayana.

These four queens had four sons. Aparajita's son was Padma and he became known by the name of Rama. Sumitra's son was Narayana: he came to be known by another name, lakshmana.

Kaikeyi's son was Bharata and Suprabha's son was Shatrughna. Furthermore, not much was thought of Ram's fidelity to Sita.

Furthermore, Sita takes renunciation as a Jain ascetic after Rama abandons her and is reborn in heaven. Rama, after lakshman's death, also renounces his kingdom and becomes a Jain monk.

Ultimately, he attains Kevala Jnana omniscience and finally liberation. Rama predicts that Ravana and Lakshmana, who were in the fourth hell , will attain liberation in their future births.

Accordingly, Ravana is the future tirthankara of the next half ascending time cycle and Sita will be his Ganadhara. In Guru Granth Sahib , there is a description of two types of Ramayana.

One is a spiritual Ramayana which is the actual subject of Guru Granth Sahib, in which Ravana is ego, Sita is budhi intellect , Rama is inner soul and Laxman is mann attention, mind.

Guru Granth Sahib also believes in the existence of Dashavatara who were kings of their times which tried their best to restore order to the world.

Guru Granth Sahib states:. Rather there is no Ramayana written by any Guru. Guru Gobind Singh however is known to have written Ram Avatar in a text which is highly debated on its authenticity.

Guru Gobind Singh clearly states that though all the 24 avatars incarnated for the betterment of the world, but fell prey to ego and therefore were destroyed by the supreme creator.

He also said that the almighty, invisible, all prevailing God created great numbers of Indras, Moons and Suns, Deities, Demons and sages, and also numerous saints and Brahmanas enlightened people.

But they too were caught in the noose of death Kaal transmigration of the soul. Besides being the site of discovery of the oldest surviving manuscript of the Ramayana , Nepal gave rise to two regional variants in mid 19th — early 20th century.

One, written by Bhanubhakta Acharya , is considered the first epic of Nepali language , while the other, written by Siddhidas Mahaju in Nepal Bhasa was a foundational influence in the Nepal Bhasa renaissance.

Ramayana written by Bhanubhakta Acharya is one of the most popular verses in Nepal. The popularization of the Ramayana and its tale, originally written in Sanskrit Language was greatly enhanced by the work of Bhanubhakta.

It adapts the Hindu concepts to Buddhist themes and shows the balance of good and evil in the world. The Reamker has several differences from the original Ramayana , including scenes not included in the original and emphasis on Hanuman and Sovanna Maccha , a retelling which influences the Thai and Lao versions.

Reamker in Cambodia is not confined to the realm of literature but extends to all Cambodian art forms, such as sculpture, Khmer classical dance , theatre known as lakhorn luang the foundation of the royal ballet , poetry and the mural and bas-reliefs seen at the Silver Pagoda and Angkor Wat.

One of the recognizable modifications is the inclusion of the indigenous Javanese guardian demigod, Semar , and his sons, Gareng, Petruk, and Bagong who make up the numerically significant four Punokawan or "clown servants".

Kakawin Ramayana was further developed on the neighboring island of Bali becoming the Balinese Ramakavaca. The bas-reliefs of Ramayana and Krishnayana scenes are carved on balustrades of the 9th century Prambanan temple in Yogyakarta , [38] as well as in the 14th century Penataran temple in East Java.

The performance also includes a fire show to describe the burning of Lanka by Hanuman. One example of a dance production of the Ramayana in Java is the Ramayana Ballet performed on the Trimurti Prambanan open air stage, with the three main prasad spires of the Prambanan Hindu temple as a backdrop.

The story of Lakshmana and Rama is told as the previous life of Gautama buddha. Yama Zatdaw is the Burmese version of Ramayana. It is also considered the unofficial national epic of Myanmar.

There are nine known pieces of the Yama Zatdaw in Myanmar. The Burmese name for the story itself is Yamayana, while zatdaw refers to the acted play or being part of the jataka tales of Theravada Buddhism.

This Burmese version is also heavily influenced by Ramakien Thai version of Ramayana which resulted from various invasions by Konbaung Dynasty kings toward the Ayutthaya Kingdom.

The Maharadia Lawana , an epic poem of the Maranao people of the Philippines , has been regarded as an indigenized version of the Ramayana since it was documented and translated into English by Professor Juan R.

Francisco and Nagasura Madale in Francisco, an indologist from the University of the Philippines Manila , believed that the Ramayana narrative arrived in the Philippines some time between the 17th to 19th centuries, via interactions with Javanese and Malaysian cultures which traded extensively with India.

By the time it was documented in the s, the character names, place names, and the precise episodes and events in Maharadia Lawana's narrative already had some notable differences from those of the Ramayana.

Francisco believed that this was a sign of "indigenization", and suggested that some changes had already been introduced in Malaysia and Java even before the story was heard by the Maranao, and that upon reaching the Maranao homeland, the story was " further indigenized to suit Philippine cultural perspectives and orientations.

In Ramakien, Sita is the daughter of Ravana and Mandodari thotsakan and montho. Vibhishana phiphek , the astrologer brother of Ravana, predicts the death of Ravana from the horoscope of Sita.

Ravana has thrown her into the water, but she is later rescued by Janaka chanok. It has an expanded role for Hanuman and he is portrayed as a lascivious character.

Ramakien can be seen in an elaborate illustration at Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok. A critical edition of the text was compiled in India in the s and s, by the Oriental Institute at Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda , India, utilizing dozens of manuscripts collected from across India and the surrounding region.

Goldman of the University of California, Berkeley. One of the most important literary works of ancient India , the Ramayana has had a profound impact on art and culture in the Indian subcontinent and southeast Asia with the lone exception of Vietnam.

The story ushered in the tradition of the next thousand years of massive-scale works in the rich diction of regal courts and Hindu temples.

It has also inspired much secondary literature in various languages, notably Kambaramayanam by Tamil poet Kambar of the 12th century, Telugu language Molla Ramayanam by poet Molla and Ranganatha Ramayanam by poet Gona Budda Reddy, 14th century Kannada poet Narahari 's Torave Ramayana and 15th century Bengali poet Krittibas Ojha 's Krittivasi Ramayan , as well as the 16th century Awadhi version, Ramacharitamanas , written by Tulsidas.

Ramayanic scenes have also been depicted through terracottas , stone sculptures , bronzes and paintings. The Ramayana became popular in Southeast Asia during 8th century and was represented in literature, temple architecture, dance and theatre.

Today, dramatic enactments of the story of the Ramayana , known as Ramlila , take place all across India and in many places across the globe within the Indian diaspora.

In Indonesia , especially Java and Bali , Ramayana has become a popular source of artistic expression for dance drama and shadow puppet performance in the region.

Sendratari Ramayana is Javanese traditional ballet of wayang orang genre, routinely performed in Prambanan Trimurti temple and in cultural center of Yogyakarta.

Javanese wayang kulit purwa also draws its episodes from Ramayana or Mahabharata. Ramayana has also been depicted in many paintings, most notably by the Malaysian artist Syed Thajudeen in Rama, the hero of the Ramayana , is one of the most popular deities worshipped in the Hindu religion.

Each year, many devout pilgrims trace their journey through India and Nepal, halting at each of the holy sites along the way. The poem is not seen as just a literary monument, but serves as an integral part of Hinduism and is held in such reverence that the mere reading or hearing of it or certain passages of it, is believed by Hindus to free them from sin and bless the reader or listener.

According to Hindu tradition, Rama is an incarnation Avatar of god Vishnu. The main purpose of this incarnation is to demonstrate the righteous path dharma for all living creatures on earth.

A number of plays, movies and television serials have also been produced based upon the Ramayana. In Indonesia , "Ramayana" department store is named after the epic.

The company which owns it is known as PT Ramayana Lestari Sentosa founded in with its main office located in Jakarta.

One of the best known Ramayana plays is Gopal Sharman's The Ramayana, a contemporary interpretation in English, of the great epic based on the Valmiki Ramayana.

The play has had more than plus performances all over the world, mostly as a one-woman performance by actress Jalabala Vaidya, wife of the playwright Gopal Sharman.

Dass has taught acting arts, costume-attire design, mask making and choreography to bring alive characters of Rama , Sita , Hanuman , Lakshmana , Shiva , Parvati , Vibhishan , Jatayu , Sugriva , Surpanakha , Ravana and his rakshasa court, Meghnadha, Kumbhakarna and the army of monkeys and demons.

In the Philippines, a jazz ballet production was produced in the 's entitled "Rama at Sita" Rama and Sita. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the original Sanskrit version by Valmiki. For other uses, see Ramayana disambiguation.

Ancient Sanskrit Epic by Valmiki. Rama with his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana during exile in forest, manuscript, ca. Main traditions.

Vaishnavism Shaivism Shaktism Smartism Swaminarayanism. Rites of passage. Philosophical schools. Gurus, saints, philosophers.

Other texts. Text classification. Other topics.

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